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    Properties of low-density polyethylene/natural rubber/water hyacinth fiber composites: the effect of alkaline treatment

    Authors and affiliations
    S. J. Tan
    A. G. Supri

    1.Faculty of Engineering TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)KangarMalaysia
    2.Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Materials EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)KangarMalaysia

    Abstract

    The effect of alkaline treatment on the properties of low-density polyethylene/natural rubber/water hyacinth fiber (LDPE/NR/WHF) composites was studied. LDPE/NR/WHF and LDPE/NR/WHFNaOH composites were prepared using a Brabender Plasticorder. The LDPE/NR/WHFNaOH composites showed higher tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and melting temperature (Tm) but lower molar sorption and interparticle spacing (d) than did the LDPE/NR/WHF composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed that alkaline treatment removed hemicellulose and lignin in WHF, as evidenced by the disappearance of the absorption bands at 1732.79 and 1250.91 cm−1. The LDPE/NR/WHFNaOH composites demonstrated less thermal stability and rougher surface after alkaline treatment.

    Design of multiple-layer microwave absorbing structure based on rice husk and carbon nanotubes

    Authors and affiliations
    Lee Yeng Seng
    F. H. Wee
    H. A. Rahim
    Mohamed Fareq Abdul Malek
    Y. K. You
    Z. Liyana
    A. A. M. Ezanuddin

    1.Department of Electronic Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Ara uMalaysia
    2.School of Computer and Communication Engineering Univerisiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Arau Malaysia
    3.Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences University of Wollongong in Dubai (UOW)Dubai United Arab Emirates
    4.Radio Communication Engineering Department (RaCED), Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Malaysia

    Abstract
    This paper presents a multiple-layered microwave absorber using rice husk and carbon nanotube composite. The dielectric properties of each layer composite were measured and analysed. The different layer of microwave absorber enables to control the microwave absorption performance. The microwave absorption performances are demonstrated through measurements of reflectivity over the frequency range 2–18 GHz. An improvement of microwave absorption <−20 dB is observed with respect to a high lossy composite placed at bottom layer of multiple layers. Reflectivity evaluations indicate that the composites display a great potential application as wideband electromagnetic wave absorbers. References 1. Y.S.Y. Lee, M.M.F.B.A. Malek, E.M.E.E.M. Cheng, W.W. Liu, K.Y. You, M.N. Iqbal, F.H. Wee, S.F. Khor, L. Zahid, M.F.B. Haji Abd Malek, Experimental determination of the performance of rice husk-carbon nanotube composites for absorbing microwave signals in the frequency range of 12.4–18 GHz. Prog. Electromagn. Res. 140, 795–812 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 2. M.N. Iqbal, M.F. Malek, Y.S. Lee, L. Zahid, M.S. Mezan, A study of the anechoic performance of rice husk-based, geometrically tapered, hollow absorbers. Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2014, 1–9 (2014) Google Scholar 3. Y. S. Lee, F. Malek, E. M. Cheng, W. W. Liu, F. H. Wee, M. N. Iqbal, L. Zahid, F. Abdullah, A. Z. Abdullah, N. S. Noorpi et al., in Theory and Applications of Applied Electromagnetics, Composites Based on Rice Husk Ash/Polyester for Use as Microwave Absorber, vol 344 (Springer, 2015), pp. 41–48 4. P. Saini, V. Choudhary, B.P.P. Singh, R.B.B. Mathur, S.K.K. Dhawan, Polyaniline–MWCNT nanocomposites for microwave absorption and EMI shielding. Mater. Chem. Phys. 113(2–3), 919–926 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 5. Z. Wang, G. Zhao, Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanotubes-epoxy composites in a frequency range of 2–20 GHz. Open J. Compos. Mater. 3(April), 17–23 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 6. W.-S. 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Kamentsev, Y.K. Fetisov, G. Srinivasan, Ultralow-frequency magnetoelectric effect in a multilayer ferrite-piezoelectric structure. Tech. Phys. 52(6), 727–733 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 12. D.M. Wells, J. Cheng, D.E. Ellis, B.W. Wessels, Local electronic and magnetic structure of mixed ferrite multilayer materials. Phys. Rev. B 81(17), 1–12 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 13. M.R. Meshram, N.K. Agrawal, B. Sinha, P.S. Misra, Characterization of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite-based wide band microwave absorber. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 271, 207–214 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar 14. A. Kazemzadeh, A. Karlsson, Multilayered Wideband Absorbers for Oblique Angle of Incidence. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58(11), 3637–3646 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar 15. M. Cao, J. Zhu, J. Yuan, T. Zhang, Z. Peng, Z. Gao, G. Xiao, S. Qin, Computation design and performance prediction towards a multi-layer microwave absorber. Mater. Des. 23(6), 557–564 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 16. I. Kong, S. Hj Ahmad, M. Hj Abdullah, D. Hui, A. Nazlim Yusoff, D. Puryanti, Magnetic and microwave absorbing properties of magnetite thermoplastic natural rubber nanocomposites. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322(21), 3401–3409 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar 17. M.S. Cao, W.L. Song, Z.L. Hou, B. Wen, J. Yuan, The effects of temperature and frequency on the dielectric properties, electromagnetic interference shielding and microwave-absorption of short carbon fiber/silica composites. Carbon N. Y. 48(3), 788–796 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 18. F. Xu, L. Ma, Q. Huo, M. Gan, J. Tang, Microwave absorbing properties and structural design of microwave absorbers based on polyaniline and polyaniline/magnetite nanocomposite. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 374, 311–316 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar 19. B. Belaabed, J.L. Wojkiewicz, S. Lamouri, N. El Kamchi, T. Lasri, Synthesis and characterization of hybrid conducting composites based on polyaniline/magnetite fillers with improved microwave absorption properties. J. 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    Hybrid graphene–copper UWB array sensor for brain tumor detection via scattering parameters in microwave detection system

    Authors
    Mohd Aminudin Jamlos
    Abdul Hafiizh Ismail
    Mohd Faizal Jamlos
    Adam Narbudowicz

    Authors and affiliations
    1.Electronics Department, Faculty Technology of Engineering (FTK)Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Padang Besar Malaysia
    2.Advanced Communication Engineering Centre (ACE), School of Computer and Communication Engineering Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Kangar Malaysia
    3.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP)Pekan Malaysia
    4.Institute of High Frequency Technology RWTH Aachen University Aachen Germany
    5.Dublin Institute of Technology Dublin 8Ireland

    Abstract
    Hybrid graphene–copper ultra-wideband array sensor applied to microwave imaging technique is successfully used in detecting and visualizing tumor inside human brain. The sensor made of graphene coated film for the patch while copper for both the transmission line and parasitic element. The hybrid sensor performance is better than fully copper sensor. Hybrid sensor recorded wider bandwidth of 2.0–10.1 GHz compared with fully copper sensor operated from 2.5 to 10.1 GHz. Higher gain of 3.8–8.5 dB is presented by hybrid sensor, while fully copper sensor stated lower gain ranging from 2.6 to 6.7 dB. Both sensors recorded excellent total efficiency averaged at 97 and 94%, respectively. The sensor used for both transmits equivalent signal and receives backscattering signal from stratified human head model in detecting tumor. Difference in the data of the scattering parameters recorded from the head model with presence and absence of tumor is used as the main data to be further processed in confocal microwave imaging algorithm in generating image. MATLAB software is utilized to analyze S-parameter signals obtained from measurement. Tumor presence is indicated by lower S-parameter values compared to higher values recorded by tumor absence.

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